Remineralization Research Program

Main Goals

To advance scientific knowledge on the use of remineralization strategies for repair and preservation of tooth structure.

To provide scientific support for contract testing in the Remineralization area.

Specific Goals

    • development and evaluation of new approaches of enhancing the remineralization of enamel and dentin
    • development of new remineralization models and validation of existing and new models
    • investigation of the mineral distribution of artificial and natural caries/white spot lesions
    • understanding the impact of mineral distribution on lesion progression and remineralization
    • investigation of the efficacy of novel anti-caries agents
    • developing a thorough understanding of the role of fluoride in the caries process with particular emphasis on fluoride's response to lesions with different mineral distributions


Program Director 

Dr. Frank Lippert

Other Faculty Supporting the Program

Dr. Domenick T. Zero

Dr. Anderson T. Hara

Relevant Publications

Lippert F, Hara AT. Strontium and caries: a long and complicated relationship. Caries Res accepted for publication.

Lippert F. The effects of lesion baseline characteristics and different Sr:Ca ratios in plaque fluid-like solutions on caries lesion de- and remineralization. Arch Oral Biol accepted for publication.

Lippert F, Hara AT. Fluoride dose-response of human and bovine enamel caries lesions under remineralizing conditions. Amer J Dent accepted for publication.

Lippert F, Martinez-Mier EA, Soto-Rojas AE. Effects of Fluoride Concentration and Temperature of Milk on Caries Lesion Rehardening. J Dent 2012; 40:810-3.

Yassen GH, Lippert F, Eckert GJ, Eder JSO, Ferreira Zandona A.The effect of strontium and combinations of strontium and fluoride on the remineralization of artificial caries lesions in vitro. Quintessence Int 2012;43:e95–e103..

Lippert F. Dose-Response Effects of Zinc and Fluoride on Caries Lesion Remineralization. Caries Res 2012;46:62-68.

Lippert F, Butler A, Lynch RJM, Hara AT. Effect of Fluoride, Lesion Baseline Severity and Mineral Distribution on Lesion Progression. Caries Res 2012;46:23-30.

Churchley D, Lynch RJM, Lippert F, Eder JSO, Alton J, Gonzalez-Cabezas C. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging Study to Assess Remineralization of Artificial Caries Lesions. J Biomed Opt 2011;16:article 026001.

Lippert F, Butler A, Lynch RJM. Enamel Demineralization and Remineralization under Plaque Fluid-Like Conditions: A Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence Study. Caries Res 2011;45:155-61.

Lippert F, Lynch RJM, Eckert GJ, Kelly SA, Hara AT, Zero DT. In Situ Fluoride Response of Caries Lesions with Different Mineral Distributions at Baseline. Caries Res 2011;45:47-55.

Laurance-Young P, Bozec L, Gracia L, Rees R, Lippert F, Lynch RJM, Knowles JC. A review of the structure of human and bovine dental hard tissues and their physicochemical behaviour in relation to erosive challenge and remineralisation. J Dent 2011;39:266-72.

Lippert F, Zero DT, Tenuta LMA. Letter to the Editor. J Dent Res 2011;90:5.

Hara AT, Zero DT. The caries environment: saliva, pellicle, diet, and hard tissue ultrastructure. Dent Clin North Am 2010(54):455-467. 

Zero DT, Creeth JE, Bosma ML, Butler A, Guibert RG, Karwal R, Lynch RJ, Martinez-Mier EA, González-Cabezas C, Kelly SA. The effect of brushing time and dentifrice quantity on fluoride delivery in vivo and enamel surface microhardness in situ. Caries Res 2010(44):90-100. 

Zero DT. Recaldent – evidence for clinical activity. Adv Dent Res 2009(21):30-34. 

Lippert F, Newby EE, Lynch RJM, Chauhan VK, Schemehorn BR. Laboratory Assessment of the Anticaries Potential of a New Dentifrice. J Clin Dent. 2009;20(2):45-49.

Hara AT, Karlinsey RL, Zero DT. Dentine remineralisation by simulated saliva formulations with different Ca and P-i contents. Caries Res 2008(42):51-56. 

Zero DT. Dentifrices, mouthwashes, and remineralization/caries arrestment strategies. BMC Oral Health 2006(15):Suppl 1:S9. 

Zero DT, Zhang JZ, Harper DS, Wu M, Kelly S, Waskow J, Hoffman M. The remineralizing effect of an essential oil fluoride mouthrinse in an intraoral caries test. JADA 135:231-237, 2004.

Lippert F, Parker DM, Jandt KD. Susceptibility of deciduous and permanent enamel to dietary acid-induced erosion studied with atomic force microscopy nanoindentation. Eur J Oral Sci. 2004;112(1):61-6.

Lippert F, Parker DM, Jandt KD. In vitro demineralization/remineralization cycles at human tooth enamel surfaces investigated by AFM and nanoindentation. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2004;280(2):442-8.

Lippert F, Parker DM, Jandt KD. In situ remineralisation of surface softened human enamel studied with AFM nanoindentation. Surf Sci. 2004;553(1-3):105-14.

Lippert F, Parker DM, Jandt KD. Toothbrush abrasion of surface softened enamel studied with tapping mode AFM and AFM nanoindentation. Caries Res. 2004;38(5):464-72.

Paes Leme AF, Machado Tabchoury CM, Zero DT, Cury JA. The effect of fluoride dentifrice and acidulated phosphate fluoride application on early artificial carious lesions. Am J Dent 16:91-95, 2003.  

Fontana M, Gonzalez-Cabezas C, Wilson ME, Stookey GK. Inhibition of secondary caries lesion progression using fluoride varnish. Caries Res, 36:129-135, 2002.