PBL Sample Case Day 1, Page 3

Your oral examination of Mr. Helmke shows that he has retained 10 teeth and continues to have essentially no caries activity.  However, he has heavy accumulations of calcified, stained material on the lingual surfaces of his lower incisors.  Gingivitis is present around these areas, but not probing depths are over 3 mm, and there is not tooth mobility.  He states that "tartar" runs in his family, and that his father never had any cavities, but always seemed to have trouble with tartar and stains.  he wonders if changing brands of toothpaste might help him.

A panoramic radiograph is ordered for Mr. Helmke.

Day 1, Page 4