Early Caries Detection and Management


Main Goal

To develop/evaluate new technologies for the early detection of dental caries.

Specific Goals

The primary objectives of the Early Caries Detection and Management Program are to:

  • Evaluate and validate new technologies being developed for the early detection of dental caries (primary, secondary and root surface caries)

  • Utilize these new technologies to identify more efficient measures for the prevention and control of dental caries

Program Director
Dr. Andrea Ferreira Zandoná

Program Co-Director
Dr. Masatoshi Ando

Other Faculty Supporting the Program
Dr. Judith R. Chin
Dr. Richard D. Jackson
Dr. George Stookey
Dr. Domenick T. Zero



Relevant Publications

Ferreira Zandona AG, Santiago E, Eckert GJ, Katz BP, Pereira de Oliveria S, Capin OR, Mau M, Zero DT. The Natural History of Dental Caries Lesions – a 4 Year Observational Study. J D Res 2012;91(9):841 - 846.DOI 10.1177/0022034512455030

Ando M; Garcia-Corretjer M, Eckert GJ, Santiago E, Katz BP, Zero DT, Ferreira Zandona AG. Lesion Progression Evaluated by Fluorescence Image Analyses. J D Res (Submitted)

Ferreira Zandona AG. Evolution of Caries Diagnosis. Dimensions of Dent Hygiene 2011; 9(9):84-87

Diniz MB, Liam LM, Eckert G, Ferreira Zandona AG, Cordeiro RCL, Santos-Pinto L. In vitro evaluation of ICDAS and radiographic examination of occlusal surfaces and their association with treatment decisions. J Oper Dent 2011, 36-2, 133-142. 

Pereira-Oliveira S; Ferreira-Zandona A; Ando M, Zero DT, Froes de Freitas C. Optimizing Microcomputed tomography settings for caries detection. Dentomaxillofac Radiol (submitted)

Fontana M, Santiago E, Eckert GJ, Ferreira Zandona AG. Longitudinal Assessment of Caries Risk Factors in a Hispanic School-Age Population. J Dent Res 2011, Oct;90(10):1189-96 PMID 21765039

Yassen G. Lippert F, Eckert GJ, Ferreira Zandona AG. Dose-response effects of strontium and fluoride on caries lesion remineralization. Quintessence Int  2012 Jun;43(7):e95-e103.

Ferreira Zandona AG, Eggertsson H, Ando M, Katz B, Eckert GJ, Ofner S, Doi T, Kelly SA, Krushinski, Harless JD, Stookey GK, Wefel JS. A Clinical Validation Study of Early Caries Detection Methods in Deciduous Teeth. J Dent (submitted).

Fontana M, Jackson R, Eckert G, Swigonski N, Chin J, Ferreira Zandona A, Ando M, Stookey GK, Downs S, Zero DT. Identification of Caries Risk Factors in Toddlers. J Dent Res February 2011 90: 209-214DOI: 10.1177/0022034510385458

Zero DT, Ferreira Zandona AG, Macapagal Vail M, Spolnik KJ. Dental caries and pulpal disease. In: Contemporal Conecepts in the Diagnosis of Oral and Dental Disease. Dent Clinics of North Amer 2011; 55(1):29-46.

Ferreira Zandona AG, Santiago E, Eckert G, Fontana M, Ando M, Zero DT. The Use of ICDAS Combined with QLF as a Caries Detection Method. Caries Res 2010;44:317-322 (DOI: 10.1159/000317294)

Ando, M., Eckert, G.J., Zero D.T: Preliminary Study to Establish a Relationship of Tactile Sensation with Surface Roughness. Caries Res 2010;44:24-28 (DOI: 10.1159/000275570).

Ferreira Zandona AG, Al-shiha S, Eggertsson H. Student versus faculty performance using a new visual criteria for the detection of caries on occlusal surfaces: An In Vitro Examination with Histological Validation. J Oper Dent 2009;September-October 34(5):598-604.

Fontana M, Catt D, Sissons S, Eckert G, Ofner S Toro M, Gregrory RL, , Ferreira Zandona A, Eggertsson H, Jackson R, Chin J, Zero D. Xylitol: Effects on the Acquisition of Cariogenic Species in Infants. Pediatric Dentistry 2009; May-June 31(3):257-266.

Zero DT, Fontana M, Martínez-Mier EA, Ferreira-Zandoná A, Ando M, González-Cabezas C, Bayne S. The Biology, Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Dental Caries: Scientific Advances in the United States J Am Dent Assoc, 140(No suppl_1), 25S-34S. 2009

Ferreira Zandona AG, Sly MM, Ekstrand KR, Eckert G. Detecção de cáries oclusais in vitro. PerioNews 2008 2(3).

Tagtekin, D. A., Ozyoney, G., Baseren, M., Ando, M., Hayran, O., Alpar, R., Gokalp, S., Yanikoglu, F. C., Stookey, G.K.: Detection of Enamel Caries by DIAGNOdent and Ultrasonics. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 2008;106:729-735

Diniz MB, Liam LM, Santos-Pinto L. Eckert G, Ferreira Zandona AG, Cordeiro RCL, Influence of the ICDAS E-Learning Program for Occlusal Caries Detection on Dental Students. J Dent Educ. 74(8): 862-868

Stahl J, Ferreira Zandona AG. Rationale and protocol for the treatment of non-cavitated smooth surface carious lesions. General Dent 2007 Mar-Apr;55(2):105-11

Ferreira Zandona AG, Zero DT. Diagnostic tools for ealy caries detection. J Am Dent Assoc 2006; 137: 1675-1684

Hara, A.T., Turssi, C.P., Ando, M., González-Cabezas, C., Zero, D.T., Rodrigues Jr., A.L., Serra, M.C., Cury, J.A.: Influence of Fluoride-Releasing Restorative Material on Root Dentine Secondary Caries in situ. Caries Research 2006;40:435-439.

Hara, A.T., Ando, M., González-Cabezas, C., Cury, J.A., Serra, M.C., Zero, D.T: Protective Effect of the Acquired Dental Pellicle Against Different Erosive Challenges in situ. Journal of Dental Research 2006;85 (7):612-616.

Ando, M., Stookey, G.K., Zero D.T: Ability of Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) to Assess the Activity of White-Spot Lesions During Dehydration. American Journal of Dentistry 2006;19:15-18.

Hara, A.T., Ando, M., Cury, J.A., Serra, M.C., González-Cabezas, C., Zero, D.T: Influence of the Organic Matrix on Root Dentine Demineralisation by Erosive Acid. Caries Research 2005;39:134-138.

Ferreira Zandoná AG, Salmória KK, Guimarães PLC, Eckert GI. An oral health survey of nursing home residents in the city of Curitiba. Revista da ABOPREV 4(2)45-53,2002

Stookey GK, Mau MS, Isaacs RL, Gonzalez-Gierbolini C, Bartizek RD, Biesbrock AR. The relative anticaries effectiveness of three fluoride-containing dentifrices in Puerto Rico. Caries Res 2004;38:542-550.

Eggertsson H: [ICDAS detection method, history and its use in the National Dental Health survey in Iceland by the Center for Oral Health and Prevention]. Icelandic. Icelandic Dent J 2004;22:68-75.

Stookey GK: Optical methods---Quantitative light fluorescence. J Dent Res 2004;83(Spec Iss C):C84-C88.

Ando M, González-Cabezas C, Isaacs RL, Eckert GJ, Stookey GK: Evaluation of several techniques for the detection of secondary caries adjacent to amalgam restorations. Caries Res 2004;38:350-356.

Ando M, Eckert GJ, Stookey GK, Zero DT: Effect of imaging geometry on evaluating natural white-spot lesions using quantitative light-induced fluorescence. Caries Res 2004;38:39-44.

Eggertsson H, Ferreira-Zandoná AG, Ando M, González-Cabezas C, Fontana M, Martínez-Mier EA, Waskow-Chin JR, Jackson RD, Eckert GJ, Stookey GK, Zero DT: Reproducibility of in vitro and clinical examinations with QLF (Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence). Developing guidelines for imaging and analyzing QLF- images, and a process for training examiners. In: Stookey GK, ed. Early detection of dental caries III: proceedings of the 6th annual Indiana Conference. Indianapolis, Indiana: Indiana University School of Dentistry 2003:213-228.

Ferreira Zandoná AG, Stookey GK, Eggertsson H, Wefel J, Katz B, Ofner S, Eckert G: Clinical validation study of QLF at Indiana. In: Stookey GK, ed. Early detection of dental caries III: proceedings of the 6th annual Indiana Conference. Indianapolis, Indiana: Indiana University School of Dentistry 2003:237-252.

Ando M, Schemehorn BR, Zero DT, Stookey GK: Influence of enamel thickness on quantification of mineral loss in enamel using laser-induced fluorescence. Caries Res 2003;37:24-28.

González-Cabezas C, Fontana M: Current research using new technologies for the detection and monitoring of secondary caries. In: Stookey GK, ed. Early detection of dental caries III: proceedings of the 6th annual Indiana Conference. Indianapolis, Indiana: Indiana University School of Dentistry 2003:347-362.

González-Cabezas C, Fontana M, Gomes Moosbauer D, Stookey GK: Early Detection of secondary caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence. Oper Dent 2003;28:415-422.

Stookey GK: The evolution of caries detection. Dimensions of Dental Hygiene 2003;1: 12-15.

Buchalla W, Lennon AM, van der Veen MH, Stookey GK: Optimal camera and illumination angulations for detection of interproximal caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence. Caries Res 2002;36:320-326.

Lennon ÁM, Buchalla W, Switalski L, Stookey GK: Residual caries detection using visible fluorescence. Caries Res 2002;36:315-319.

Fontana M, Gonzalez-Cabezas C, Haider A, Stookey GK: Inhibition of secondary caries lesion progression using fluoride varnish. Caries Res 2002;36:129-135.

van der Veen MH, Ando M, de Josselin de Jong E, Stookey GK: A Monte-Carlo simulation of the influence of sound enamel scattering coefficient on lesion visibility in light-induced fluorescence. Caries Res 2002;36:10-18.

Stookey GK, Gonzalez-Cabezas C: Emerging methods of caries diagnosis. J Dent Educ 2001;65:1001-1006.

Ando M, van der Veen MH, Schemehorn BR, Stookey GK: Comparative study to quantify demineralized enamel in deciduous and permanent dentition using laser- and light-induced fluorescence techniques. Caries Res 2001;35:464-470.

Analoui M, Stookey GK: Direct digital radiography for caries detection and analysis. Monogr Oral Sci 2000;17:1-19.

Stookey GK: Current status of caries prevention. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2000;10:862-867.

Analoui, M, Eggertsson H, Stookey GK: Quantitative radiographic techniques for caries detection and analysis. In: Stookey GK, ed. Early detection of dental caries II: proceedings of the 4th annual Indiana Conference. Indianapolis, Indiana: Indiana University School of Dentistry 2000;185-202.

Ferreira Zandoná A, Isaacs RL, van der Veen M, Stookey GK: Indiana pilot clinical study of quantitative Light Fluorescente. In: Stookey GK, ed. Early detection of dental caries II: proceedings of the 4th annual Indiana Conference. Indianapolis, Indiana: Indiana University School of Dentistry 2000:219-230.

Ando M, Eggertsson H, Isaacs RL, Analoui M, Stookey GK: Comparison studies of several methods for early detection of fissure lesions. In: Stookey GK, ed. Early detection of dental caries II: proceedings of the 4th annual Indiana Conference. Indianapolis, Indiana: Indiana University School of Dentistry 2000;279-299.

Yanikoglu FC, Ozturk F, Hayran O, Analoui M, Stookey GK: Detection of natural white spot caries lesions by an ultrasonic system. Caries Res 2000;34:225-232.

Lagerweij, M.D.; ven der Veen, M.H.; Ando, M.; Lukantsova, L.; Stookey, G.K.: The Validity and Repeatability of Three Light-induced Fluorescence Systems: An in vitro Study. Caries Research 1999; 33: 220-226.

Hall, A.F., DeSchepper E., M. Ando., Stookey G.K.: In Vitro Studies of Laser Fluorescence for Detection and Quantification of Mineral Loss from Dental Caries. Advances in Dental Research 1997; 11(4): 507-514.

Ando, M., Hall, A.F., Eckert, G.J., Schemehorn, B.R., Analoui, M., Stookey, G.K.: Relative ability of laser fluorescence techniques to quantitate early mineral loss in vitro. Caries Research 1997; 31:125-131.

Ando, M: Effect of Fluorosurfactant on the Adsorption of Protein to Synthetic Hydroxyapatite. Shika Igaku (J Osaka Odontol Soc) 56 (1): 1-16, 1993.