Fluoride Research Program



Main Goals

To optimize the beneficial effects of fluoride while reducing its detrimental effects.

To provide scientific support for contract testing in the Fluoride area.

Specific Objectives

The primary objectives of the Fluoride Program are to:

  • develop diagnostic methodologies to accurately determine fluoride presence in biological and non-biological samples;

  • determine the role of fluoride in the onset and progression of demineralization and remineralization;

  • develop and refine methodologies to diagnose dental fluorosis through clinical, photographic and digital imaging evaluations, including dental fluorosis and incipient caries differential diagnosis;

  • determine the critical threshold for fluoride intake and exposure in infants and young children below which enamel fluorosis does not develop

    • Identify sources of fluoride exposure and intake and biomarkers for intake and exposure

  • develop studies and fluoride-based community interventions to address and identify disparities in dental caries and dental fluorosis prevalence caused by cultural, social or behavioral differences, focusing on Latino/Binational populations

Program Director

Dr. Frank Lippert

Other Faculty Supporting the Program

Dr. Masatoshi Ando
Dr. Richard Jackson
Dr. Armando Soto-Rojas
Dr. Karen Yoder
Dr. Domenick Zero

Research Fellows Supporting the Program

Tech. Chris Buckley
Tech. Prithvi Chandrappa
Tech. Rolando Torres
Tech. Jenniffer Eder

Relevant Publications

1. Lippert F, Martinez-Mier EA, Soto-Rojas AE. Effects of fluoride concentration and temperature of milk on caries lesion rehardening. J Dent. 2012 Oct;40(10):810-3. Epub 2012 Jun 15.

2. Zero DT, Marinho VC, Phantumvanit P. Effective use of self-care fluoride administration in Asia. Adv Dent Res. 2012 Feb;24(1):16-21.

3. Martinez-Mier EA. Fluoride-containing orthodontic adhesives may reduce the occurrence of enamel demineralization in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2011 Sep;11(3):132-4.

4. Yan D, Willett TL, Gu XM, Martinez-Mier EA, Sardone L, McShane L, Grynpas M, Everett ET. Phenotypic variation of fluoride responses between inbred strains of mice. Cells Tissues Organs. 2011;194(2-4):261-7. Epub 2011 May 9.

5. Steinmetz JE, Martinez-Mier EA, Jones JE, Sanders BJ, Weddell JA, Soto-Rojas AE, Tomlin AM, Eckert GJ. Fluoride content of water used to reconstitute infant formula. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2011 Feb;50(2):100-5.

6. Lippert F, Lynch RJM, Eckert GJ, Kelly SA, Hara AT, Zero DT. In Situ Fluoride Response of Caries Lesions with Different Mineral Distributions at Baseline. Caries Res. 2011;45(1):47-55.

7. Martinez-Mier EA, Cury JA, Heilman JR, Katz BP, Levy SM, Li Y, Maguire A, Margineda J, O’Mullane D, Phantumvanit P, Soto-Rojas AE, Stookey GK, Villa A., Wefel JS, Whelton H, Whitford GM, Zero DT, Zhang W, Zohouri V. Development of gold standard ion-selective electrode-based methods for fluoride analysis. Caries Res. 2011;45(1):3-12.

8. Martinez-Mier EA, Soto-Rojas AE. Differences in exposure and biological markers of fluoride among White and African American children. J Public Health Dent. 2010;70(3):234-240.

9. Zero DT, Creeth JE, Bosma ML, Butler A, Guibert RG, Karwal R, Lynch RJ, Martinez-Mier EA, González-Cabezas C, Kelly SA. The effect of brushing time and dentifrice quantity on fluoride delivery in vivo and enamel surface microhardness in situ. Caries Res. 2010;44(2):90-100.

10. Hara AT, Zero DT. The caries environment: saliva, pellicle, diet, and hard tissue ultrastructure. Dent Clin North Am. 2010;54(3):455-467.

11. Hara AT, Kelly SA, González-Cabezas C, Eckert GJ, Barlow AP, Mason SC, Zero DT. Influence of fluoride availability of dentifrices on eroded enamel remineralization in situ. Caries Res. 2009;43(1):57-63.

12. Soto-Rojas AE, Martinez-Mier EA. Conceptual and analytic issues surrounding a report on domestic salt fluoridation in Mexico. J Public Health Dent. 2009;69(2):63.

13. Martínez-Mier EA, Soto-Rojas AE, Margineda J, Zero DT. Evaluation of the direct and diffusion methods for the determination of fluoride content in table salt. Communiy Dent Health. 2009;26(4):204-210.

14. Zero DT, Fontana M, Martinez-Mier EA, Ferreira-Zandoná A, Ando M, González-Cabezas C, Bayne S. The biology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental caries: scientific advances in the United States. J Am Dent Assoc. 2009;140 Suppl 1:25S-34S.

15. Martinez-Mier EA, Kelly SA, Eckert GJ, Jackson RD. Comparison of a dietary survey and the duplicate plate method for determining dietary fluoride ingested by young children. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2009;19(2):99-107.

16. Hara AT, González-Cabezas C, Creeth J, Parmar M, Eckert GJ, Zero DT. Interplay between fluoride and abrasivity of dentifrices on dental erosion-abrasion. J Dent. 2009;37(10):781-785.

17. Everett ET, Yan D, Weaver M, Liu L, Foroud T, Martinez-Mier EA. Detection of dental fluorosis-associated quantitative trait Loci on mouse chromosomes 2 and 11. Cells Tissues Organs. 2009;189(1-4):212-218.

18. Soto-Rojas AE, Martínez-Mier EA, Ureña-Cirett J, Jackson RD, Stookey GK. Development of a standardisation device for photographic assessment of dental fluorosis in field studies. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2008;6(1):29-36

19. Yoder KM, Maupome G, Ofner S, Swigonski NL. Knowledge and use of fluoride among Indiana dental professionals. J Public Health Dent. 2007;67(3):140-147.

20. Zero DT, Hara AT, Kelly SA, González-Cabezas C, Eckert GJ, Barlow AP, Mason SC. Evaluation of a desensitizing test dentifrice using an in situ erosion remineralization model. J Clin Dent. 2006;17(4):112-116.

21. Hara AT, Turssi CP, Ando M, González-Cabezas C, Zero DT, Rodrigues AL Jr, Serra MC, Cury JA. Influence of fluoride-releasing restorative material on root dentine secondary caries in situ. Caries Res. 2006;40(5):435-439.

22. Zero DT, Zhang JZ, Harper DS, Wu M, Kelly S, Waskow J, Hoffman M. The remineralizing effect of an essential oil fluoride mouthrinse in an intraoral caries test. J Am Dent Assoc. 2004;135(2):231-237.

23. Martínez-Mier EA, Soto-Rojas AE, Buckley CM, Margineda J, Zero DT. Fluoride Concentration of Bottled Water, Tap Water, and Fluoridated Salt from Two Communities in Mexico. Int Dent J. 2005 Apr;55(2):93-99.

24. Kubota K, Lee DH, Tsuchiya M, Young CS, Everett ET, Martinez-Mier EA, Snead ML, Nguyen L, Urano F, Bartlett JD. Fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280(24):23194-202.

25. Martínez-Mier, EA; Maupomé, G; Soto-Rojas, AE; Ureña-Cirett, JL; Katz, B; Stookey, GK: Development of a questionnaire to measure perceptions of, and concerns derived from, dental fluorosis. Community Dent Health. 2004;21(3):299-305.