Frank Lippert, MSc, PhD

Frank Lippert, MSc, PhD
Frank Lippert, MSc, PhD

Assistant Research Professor
Director, Remineralization Research Program

Contact Info

Phone  (317) 274-3983
Fax       (317) 274-5425

Office Address

Indiana University School of Dentistry 
Oral Health Research Institute 
415 Lansing St., Indianapolis, IN 46202-2876


Frank Lippert, MSc, PhD, holds the position of Assistant Research Professor in the Department of Preventative and Community Dentistry at the Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) which he joined in 2009. Dr. Lippert directs the OHRI Remineralization Research Program. He is originally from Germany where he studied food science at the Technical University of Dresden. Dr. Lippert received his PhD from the Dental School of the University of Bristol, UK in 2004 and then joined the Aquafresh New Product Research group at GlaxoSmithKline in Weybridge, UK. His research activities in dentistry started as a postgraduate student in 2000, when he was conducting dental erosion research using atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation in vitro as well as in situ, leading to several publications in peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Lippert continued his research activities at GlaxoSmithKline where he was directly involved in the development of oral healthcare products with improved fluoride and anti-caries effectiveness by investigating the impact of formulation excipients on fluoride delivery combined with the development of in vitro models with better in vivo/in situ enamel surface finish, with the aim to develop systems with improved cleaning and smoothening while reducing abrasivity. Dr. Lippert has an extensive knowledge of dentifrice and mouthrinse formulation science, combined with a strong background in tooth wear and caries research.


Dr. Lippert directs the Remineralization Unit which is an integral part of the Laboratory Testing Facility at the Oral Health Research Institute.

Research Interests

Dr. Lippert conducts hard tissue caries research and predominantly focuses on the following areas:

  • investigation of the mineral distribution of artificial and natural caries/white spot lesions
  • understanding the impact of mineral distribution on lesion progression and remineralization
  • investigation of the efficacy of novel anti-caries agents
  • developing a thorough understanding of the role of fluoride in the caries process with particular emphasis on fluoride's response to lesions with different mineral distributions

Dr. Lippert is also active in dental erosion/abrasion research in collaboration with the program director Dr. Hara.


Lippert F. In vitro fluoride release from fluoride varnishes under acidic conditions. J Clin Pediatr Dent accepted for publication

Lippert F, Hara AT, Martinez-Mier EA, Zero DT. Laboratory investigations into the potential anti-caries efficacy of fluoride varnishes. Pediatr Dent 2014;36:291-5.

Gelani R, Lippert F, Eckert GJ, Kamocka MM, Ferreira Zandona A. In vitro progression of artificial white spot lesions sealed with an infiltrant resin. Oper Dent 2014;39:481-5.

Lippert F, Lynch RJM. Comparison of Knoop and Vickers surface microhardness and transverse microradiography for the study of early caries lesion formation in human and bovine enamel. Arch Oral Biol 2014;59:704-10.

Lippert F, Martinez-Mier EA, Zero DT. An in situ caries study on the interplay between fluoride dose and concentration in milk. J Dent 2014;42:883-90.

Nassar HM, Lippert F, Eckert GJ, Hara AT. Dentifrice fluoride and abrasivity interplay on surface loss of artificial caries lesions. Caries Res 2014;48:507-14.

Borges AB, Scaramucci T, Lippert F, Zero DT, Hara AT. Erosion protection by calcium lactate/sodium fluoride rinses under different salivary flows in vitro. Caries Res 2014;48:193-9.

Alshara S, Lippert F, Eckert GJ, Hara AT. Effectiveness and mechanisms of action of whitening dentifrices on enamel extrinsic stains. Clin Oral Invest 2014;18:563-9.

Lippert F, Hara AT, Martinez-Mier EA, Zero DT. In vitro caries lesion rehardening and enamel fluoride uptake from fluoride varnishes as a function of application mode. Amer J Dent 2013;26:81-5.

Lippert F. An introduction to toothpaste - its purpose, history and ingredients. Monographs Oral Sci 2013;23;1-14.

Gonzalez-Cabezas C, Hara AT, Hefferren J, Lippert F. Abrasivity testing of dentifrices - challenges and current state of the art. Monographs Oral Sci 2013; 23; 100-7.

Lippert F, Butler A, Lynch RJM. Characteristics of methylcellulose acid gel lesions created in human and bovine enamel. Caries Res 2013;47:50-5.

Lippert F, Hara AT. Strontium and caries: a long and complicated relationship. Caries Res 2013;47:34-49.

Hara AT, Lippert F, Zero DT. Interplay between experimental dental pellicles and stannous-containing toothpaste on dental erosion-abrasion. Caries Res 2013;47:325-9.

Sabrah A, Lippert F, Kelly AB, Hara AT. Comparison between radiotracer and surface profile methods for the determination of dentifrice abrasivity. Wear 2013;306:73-9.

Arthur RA, Waeiss RA, Hara AT, Lippert F, Eckert GJ, Zero DT. A defined-multispecies microbial model for studying enamel caries development. Caries Res 2013;47:318-24.

Scaramucci T, Borges AB, Lippert F, Frank NE, Hara AT. Sodium fluoride effect on erosion-abrasion under hyposalivatory simulating conditions. Arch Oral Biol 2013;58:1457-63.

Newby EE, Martinez-Mier EA, Hara A, Lippert F, Kelly SA, Fleming N, Butler A, Bosma ML, Zero DT. A randomised clinical study to evaluate experimental children's toothpastes in an in-situ palatal caries model in children aged 11-14 years. Int Dent J 2013;63 S2:31-8.

Lippert F. The effects of lesion baseline characteristics and different Sr:Ca ratios in plaque fluid-like solutions on caries lesion de- and remineralization. Arch Oral Biol 2012;57:1299-1306.

Lippert F, Hara AT. Fluoride dose-response of human and bovine enamel caries lesions under remineralizing conditions. Am J Dent 2012;25:205-9.

Lippert F, Martinez-Mier EA, Soto-Rojas AE. Effects of fluoride concentration and temperature of milk on caries lesion rehardening. J Dent 2012;40:810-3.

Lippert F. Dose-response effects of zinc and fluoride on caries lesion remineralization. Caries Res 2012;46:62-8.

Lippert F, Butler A, Lynch RJM, Hara AT. Effect of fluoride, lesion baseline severity and mineral distribution on lesion progression. Caries Res 2012;46:23-30.

Yassen GH, Lippert F, Eckert GJ, Eder JSO, Ferreira Zandona A. The effect of strontium and combinations of strontium and fluoride on the remineralization of artificial caries lesions in vitro. Quintessence Int 2012;43:e95–e103.

Lippert F, Butler A, Lynch RJM. Enamel demineralization and remineralization under plaque fluid-like conditions: a quantitative light-induced fluorescence study. Caries Res 2011;45:155-61.

Lippert F, Lynch RJM, Eckert GJ, Kelly SA, Hara AT, Zero DT. In situ fluoride response of caries lesions with different mineral distributions at baseline. Caries Res 2011;45:47-55.

Churchley D, Lynch RJM, Lippert F, Eder JSO, Alton J, Gonzalez-Cabezas C. Terahertz pulsed imaging study to assess remineralization of artificial caries lesions. J Biomed Opt 2011;16:article 026001.

Laurance-Young P, Bozec L, Gracia L, Rees R, Lippert F, Lynch RJM, Knowles JC. A review of the structure of human and bovine dental hard tissues and their physicochemical behavior in relation to erosive challenge and remineralisation. J Dent 2011;39:266-72.

Lippert F, Newby EE, Lynch RJM, Chauhan VK, Schemehorn BR. Laboratory assessment of the anticaries potential of a new dentifrice. J Clin Dent 2009;20:45-9.

Steffan W, Balzer HH, Lippert F, Sambor BC, Bradbury AGW, Henle T. Characterization of casein lactosylation by capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Eur Food Res Technol 2006;222:467-71.

Lippert F, Parker DM, Jandt KD. Susceptibility of deciduous and permanent enamel to dietary acid-induced erosion studied with atomic force microscopy nanoindentation. Eur J Oral Sci 2004;112:61-6.

Lippert F, Parker DM, Jandt KD. In vitro demineralization/remineralization cycles at human tooth enamel surfaces investigated by AFM and nanoindentation. J Colloid Interface Sci 2004;280:442-8.

Lippert F, Parker DM, Jandt KD. In situ remineralisation of surface softened human enamel studied with AFM nanoindentation. Surf Sci 2004;553:105-14.

Lippert F, Parker DM, Jandt KD. Toothbrush abrasion of surface softened enamel studied with tapping mode AFM and AFM nanoindentation. Caries Res 2004;38:464-72.